As part of my thinking on assessment I’ve been looking at how to assess knowledge & understanding. I’ve been considering stages of knowledge and whether it is possible to use this to ensure students’ thinking is based on solid foundations and then stretched further by more complex concepts.
One area I’ve been struggling to structure is the use of keywords. I added ‘keywords’ into all the stages and thought about how the vocabulary that is used in more complex concepts will differ.
I’m now considering how the use of keywords in themselves can be an indicator of knowledge & understanding.
I will try to explain using an example from my own subject area.
The new GCSE subject content gives the following for knowledge & understanding relating to the crucifixion of Jesus:
- incarnation, crucifixion, resurrection and ascension
- salvation, including law, sin, grace and Spirit, the role of Christ in salvation, and the nature of atonement
These are key concepts that students need to understand to truly understand what this event in Christianity means for Christians.
I wil take the key concept of ‘atonement’.
If we go from the simplest way to understand this concept, using foundation knowledge & vocabulary then we can see how the complexity of this concept may be broken down, as follows:
- Saying sorry for something you’ve done wrong (apology)
- Saying sorry and someone forgiving you (forgiveness)
- Sinning and asking God to forgive you (repentance)
- Sinning and asking God to forgive you, knowing that Jesus dying enables this to be accepted (salvation)
- Reestablishing (‘covering’) the pre-sin relationship between man and God ‘At-one-ment’ (Atonement)
Without an understanding of the prior concepts and keywords it would be difficult to understand the final concept of atonement.
So how can this be used in teaching?
My new plan is to come up with the key vocabulary (alongside threshold concepts – another blog) for each topic or unit of work. I can then use these to check if the students have understood before I move on. This could happen in a lesson or over several lessons depending on the students foundation knowledge & understanding.
This checking can be done at the beginning, at intervals and/or at the end. Ideally as frequently as possible but realistically at least at the beginning and end.
This could be done in several ways:
Questioning – if I ask a student “what will God forgive?” They have to understand the concept of forgives to give a correct answer. Regular, targeted questions should give a good idea of what they do/don’t understand.
Written response – ask students a question, write a statement that means they have to show which concepts they know and understand. For example, “Salvation is possible for everyone” requires them to understand what it is to decide whether it can apply to everyone.
Multiple choice/diagnostic qu – I’m trialling this. A quick way to see what they do/don’t know and understand.
‘Final assessment‘ – however this is completed students will be told they must use the keywords learnt. They can have a list of them. It’s not a test to see if they remember the word, it is checking to see if they fully understand it enough by using it correctly in their work. Setting self differentiating tasks on this means all can achieve and show what they’ve learnt.
These keywords are essential in my new assessment systems as they are a key part of seeing if a student has understood the content.
This has already been highlighted in a student essay on marriage that looked great in terms of structure but had no key terms for the topic in it; it was essentially a sociology essay.
To avoid this from now on all assessed written pieces will have a set of student generated keywords as a part of the essay planning process.